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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

有时,你会不会因为忘记把车钥匙放哪而上班迟到?或者是完全忘记和朋友喝咖啡的约定,结果收到朋友问你在哪里的短信才突然想起和朋友有约?抑或是早就不记得小学的时候那位你最喜欢的老师的名字了?记忆问题几乎困扰着每一个人,只是程度不同而已,但是科学家认为,或许你可以通过进行一些特定的活动、食用一些特定的食物或者采用一些特定的记忆方法来提高自己的记忆力,并且降低患阿尔茨海默症和痴呆的风险。

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007系列电影荣誉主题曲之二:凯蒂·朗--《屈服》
节目11 歌曲《我心永恒》,席琳-迪翁
Inclusive and green finance

密码管理应用设计商Splashdata发布了一份“25个最常见密码” 榜单。
These countries performed the best overall in the 2017 Best Countries rankings. The rankings aim to gauge global perceptions of the world’s biggest economies.
The survey found the majority of grads, or 73.5 percent, have found jobs, while the number of students set to continue their studies in China accounted for just 6.3 percent, sharply down from 16.5 percent in 2016.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

众声评点:油退水进? 新法下涂料行业巨变在即

Chinese direct investment in the eurozone was up 37 per cent in 2015, rising to $17.1bn from $12.5bn.
The Caixin-Markit manufacturing purchasing managers’ index dipped to 50.8 in November, down from 51 in October and coming closer to the 50-point threshold that delineates expansion from contraction. A median forecast from economists polled by Reuters had predicted a fall to 50.9.
它促使特朗普当选不仅与选举中的投票数不符,而且也没有反映出亚历山大.汉密尔顿(Alexander Hamilton)想要的那种对候选人德行的判断。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

For: The National Board of Review gave it their best film, actor and actress awards.
Even if the tapering is smooth, the Fed could spend much of the year grappling with the prospect of raising its interest-rate target as early as 2015.
[?'fektid]

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 'With women, he has this sort of patronising carnal attitude with them which is absolutely accurate to the Bond of the books. But then by creating very strong women he is given quite a run for his money and his attitudes are challenged.
  • 一二手房价倒挂致摇号买房蔓延 限价政策效应递减
  • According to the report, students from prestigious universities were less willing to start businesses, likely because of high opportunity cost.
  • 西安:禁止将房屋销售与学区、学校相关联
  • 毕业租房 这些窍门要知道
  • Like any college kid, Evan Wray loved using the tiny pictograms known as emoji. But he hated that there was no emoji to express his Fighting Irish pride with fellow University of Notre Dame students. So, alongside co-founder Sean O’Brien, he built a modest business on that disconnect. TextPride, as it was called, licensed images from brands in the sports and entertainment world and sold them as sticker packs. Within a messaging app like Kik, users could buy a packet of stickers for Disney’s Frozen for $1.99, for example.
    6.凡事以人为先

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 社科院:一二线城市房地产“金九银十”或落空, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

广西出台20条措施优化土地要素供给为企业减负

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

广州市花都区发布治违通告:违建不得交易和出租

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 6Sweden
    1月份中国居民消费价格指数(CPI)出现上涨,在本月金融市场动荡为主的背景下,该消息对于这个世界第二大经济体来说是个令人鼓舞的迹象。
  • 根据你希望推广的品牌文化,寻找能够为其提供支持的技能和态度,可以促进公司的创新,增强公司的信誉。从外部寻找帮手,帮助你的团队进步。 这将开启一个免费的营销连锁反应,为你树立自信并增加收入。
    n. 外表,外貌,出现,出场,露面
    吊床架组装方便,可以架在桨板、橡皮船和皮筏上。
    Will China's stock market climb back to the 6,000-point mark it reached two years ago? The stock market was at its most bullish back then, but if you ask the same question now, some would cite a global economy still reeling from a recession.
    今年领跑美国股市的标普500公司的行业组合有些奇特,出现了一些令人意想不到的黑马。就算基金经理预见到了医疗保健行业今年将上涨27%,难道他们也能猜到公用事业行业将位列第二,上涨23%?不大可能。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 常宇:北京冬奥会展示中心6月1日正式开放
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 链家大数据:北京00后高端置业崛起 仅次于80后

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

下载量紧随《权力的游戏》之后的是美剧《绝命毒师》和《行尸走肉》。以下是根据BT下载网站 TorrentFreak和BitTorrent 数据统计的2013年被下载次数最多的美剧排名:
报告显示,与2015年相比,2016年选择创业的应届毕业生比例明显下降,由6.3%降至3.1%。
The latest survey also showed the country had a narrower gap between genders in 2015. As to the structure of genders, the male-to-female ratio last year was 105.02, lower than the 2010 ratio of 105.2.
至少在城市大部分人能去上班是不可能的,这将影响多个行业,包括金融、广告、医疗保健和艺术。近两天城市的交通线路、桥梁、隧道都瘫痪了,在最新的报告中,地铁到下周可能会正常运作。
变化世界中的得与失
A few recent scientific papers say that such long-lasting kinks in the jet stream have become more likely because global warming is rapidly melting the sea ice in the Arctic, but many leading scientists are not convinced on that point.
该银行预测,寻找对冲通胀的方式的指数基金(那些追踪大宗商品指数的基金),将在明年下半年回归农产品市场。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 尽管可以下载的课程具有较好前景,但在现实世界,得到官方承认的学历仍然基于课堂教学活动。初创公司采取了这样一种态度:如果他们无法以新的服务交付方式在高校的地盘上击败它们,那就应该与之建立合作伙伴关系。其结果是,他们忙着争取考试委员会核准他们的在线课程,使其可以算作学士或硕士学位资格的一部分。
  • 环保成发展主旋律 水性涂料项目投资占比较大
  • Peace and love for you at New Year from all your students.祝老师新年充满平安和爱。
    But because I can’t help but hope that with the end of “Mad Men” comes the end of a period in fashion that has seen designers become trapped in the past to an almost stifling degree. At least the past as it looked in the 1960s (which in the beginning, let us not forget, looked a lot like the late 1950s) and early ’70s.
  • 天津楼市今年突进 泰鹏红湾项目却“烂尾”7年
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 根据中国海关的数据,10月铁矿石进口量较上月环比下降12.3%,同比下降4.9%,而煤炭进口环比下降21.4%,同比下降30.7%。
    adj. 全球性的,全世界的,球状的,全局的
  • "People can be unhappy for many reasons -- from poverty to unemployment to family breakdown to physical illness," the report said. "But in any particular society, chronic mental illness is a highly influential cause of misery. If we want a happier world, we need a completely new deal on mental health."
    我打赌短期内这些力量——以及美国的首席执行官们——将继续缓和总统在贸易上的火气。不过眼下华盛顿有很多人叫嚣着要在贸易上惩罚中国。
  • ? Heavy snow has fallen in West Virginia, with up to 17 inches in Webster Springs. The National Weather Service has warned that more is on the way.
    她说:“1到10,我觉得自己只能拿9分,因为我一定还有提升的空间。我知道我可以走更远。”
  • 在丝绸之路上找到了一个1700年历史之久的墓地。丝绸之路是一系列的古代贸易路线,曾经链接着中国和罗马帝国。
    Another fashion high-flyer making her mark on the first day of the world-famous festival was Winnie Harlow. The Canadian model - who has the skin condition vitiligo - nearly took Emily's crown, as she made a play for the attention with her elegant belle of the ball outfit.
    The film pulls heavily from the life of Arthur Bremer, who shot presidential candidate and segregationist George Wallace in 1972. Similarly to his film counterpart, Bremer shot Wallace shortly after being rebuffed by a young girl. Overall, though, his life was much less exciting than that of De Niro's character, with the biggest commonality between the two being that neither actually succeeds in killing a politician.
  • 展示自己,每时每刻
    Where Goods Made From Trafficked Wildlife Go
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The “3·15家装曝光台”将走进建材商场、家装公司 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

涂料行业翻天巨变 “单品打天下”无力为继

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

下半年楼市猜想:“大稳小乱”

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

消费者无法线上体验物品 家具或离电商有些远

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

个别房产机构散布虚假购房消息 消费者请勿上当

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 作为回应,维尔德斯把吕特归为骗子,指责后者未能遵守在2012年选举期间做出的不支持纾困希腊的承诺。
  • The world's second-largest economy is catching up to traditional innovation front-runners, who were led again this year by Switzerland, Sweden, Britain and the United States, said the annual report by the U.N.'s World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), INSEAD Business School and Cornell University.
  • 中国石墨烯市场规模2015年增长336%至610万美元

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 与无锡接近的涨幅第二的城市是湖南省省会长沙,该市环比涨幅为4.5%。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • We had everything before us, we had nothing before us…
    扎克伯格还协助成立了一个名为FWD.us的游说团体,旨在推动美国的移民和教育改革。
    As for the molecular motors, they’re geared up to bring huge potential to the fields of medicine and energy.
  • 中国社会科学院近日发布的《中国社会心态研究报告(2016)》显示,一线城市居民生活压力较大,不过小城市也未必是宜居地。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Taken together, these events and strategic initiatives highlight the Chinese aerospace industry’s realization that, in order to become a globally competitive player, it will need depth as much as breadth. After getting their hands on both ends of the value chain—aircraft design and final assembly—the Chinese now understand that what will make or break their industry over the long term is what happens in the middle of the value chain, at the component and subsystem levels. And that is why China’s ambition to compete with Boeing and Airbus, as well as with GE and Rolls-Royce for aircraft engines, is now more credible than ever.
  • 长沙楼市11月降温开局 成交下降市场渐趋理性
  • 这一数字是曼谷市人口(1000万)的两倍多。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 变革运营不能只走形式 瓷砖行业拼命找出口
  • Household substance abuse
  • 定制家居进入“快车道” 但已不是谁都能上车
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

美欧9家钢协齐声发难:全球钢铁过剩责任在中国

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 家居新政频出 市场影响几何?
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 涂料企业推陈出新 新型涂料走俏市场
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

22岁的吉吉·哈迪德和21岁的贝拉·哈迪德也是首次跻身榜单,分别位列榜单的第五位和第九位,吉吉·哈迪德的收入为950万美元,她的妹妹贝拉·哈迪德的收入为600万美元。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

米特卜王子被捕不到一个月即获释,这显示出沙特想要迅速结束这场腐败调查,阿尔瓦利德·本·塔拉尔王子等多名王室成员和亿万富翁在调查中突然被捕。
undeniable
反对:纽约时和洛杉矶影评人协会都对该片无感。
[mɑ:sk]
8.Your Boss Sucks
Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC).” Previous reports have pegged the screen size at just under the 5 inches of Samsung’s Galaxy 4.
该报道称,并没有老师和学生喝了有毒的水。
同时,调查数据还显示,榜单上前100名的学校,毕业生平均月薪较去年上涨了1818元,涨幅达到22.8%。
Around 280 million train tickets have been sold on 12306.cn since Jan 3, 2018 when tickets for the Spring Festival holiday started selling.
The strength of Kellogg/HKUST is the quality of its participants.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

深圳新房改“保障房占六成”寓意深远

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 对于精打细算的旅客来说,尼泊尔一直是绝佳的好去处。无论是该地区的徒步路线还是南部地区的野外生物,在世界范围内都是赫赫有名。平均每人每天的旅行花费大概只在50美元左右。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • Or maybe you've become bolder in arguing against decisions you disagree with, Foss says. "Any variation to what's expected of you or from you could raise an eyebrow," she adds。
  • “史上最严”环保法施行进入倒计时 家具企业将被“玩死”?
  • 谷歌研究员发现,用安全性问题作为恢复账号登录的唯一方式,并不是那么有效。
  • 投资不过山海关?东北民企如何跨跨越“三座大山”
  • SAVANNAH, GA.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 国资委:一季度央企完成固定资产投资3840.2亿元 同比增长9.7%
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • DIHK's foreign business chief Volker Treier said the volume of goods exported to China from Germany grew rapidly in the latter part of 2016, Chinanews.com reported.
  • 研究集团龙洲经讯(Gavekal Dragonomics)的陈龙表示,如今分析师们认为,中国银行业的盈利性增长机会差不多用完了。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

减负成2019年政策主旋律

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