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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

《琅琊榜》的意外爆红让这部戏成为2015年秋季档电视剧中的翘楚。同样改编自网络小说(海晏著)的《琅琊榜》2015年9月首播。该剧由胡歌、刘涛等人主演,讲诉了才冠绝伦的谋士梅长苏为昭雪多年冤案进行的一系列斗争。虚构的人物和朝代让改编剧集巧妙地躲过了历史准确性上的责难。它精美的场景布置和无懈可击的故事情节受到了广大观众的一致好评。

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n. 怪
几乎所有的创业者(93%)都将获得新技能列为自己决定读EMBA的重要或非常重要的因素。“我知道自身技能的价值,而不必‘担心’没有工作,”其中一位创业者说。
"I'm excited about the opportunity to return to China, enjoy the country's culture, and bring the excitement of live NBA games directly to Chinese fans," he added.

我国经济基本面好,商业银行资本充足率、拨备覆盖率比较高,可动用的工具和手段多。对守住不发生系统性金融风险的底线,我们有信心和底气、有能力和办法。
Before long, Russell fell in love with inmate named Phillip Morris. After Morris was released, Russell again escaped prison by calling the clerk's office, impersonating a judge and drastically reducing his own bail. He was caught and escaped two more times to be with Morris, at one point faking his own death. He is now serving a life sentence but admits to finding his film portrayal pretty exciting.
过去三年,由于北京决定在官方总收入中增加新的服务费,有关中国票房增长的结论变得复杂起来。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

部分股市资金转战京沪楼市 楼市成股市收割机

Turkey’s president ratcheted up his diplomatic row with the Netherlands on Tuesday, claiming the country had a “rotten character” and blaming Dutch troops for the worst massacre in Europe since the second world war.
The North has already warned that Park will "pay for his crimes in blood" if copies of the film make it across the border.
其他两家手机制造商OPPO和vivo的增长率都超过了100%,在2016年分别出货9940万台和7730万台。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

从周日起,各地的观众都在叹息该剧剧终,至少从Twitter名人的帖子来看是这样的。
该排名的编辑菲尔·巴蒂称:“在近几年取得重大进展之后,中国在全球排名榜上的持续增长似乎已经停滞。这些新数据显示,新兴力量要打入传统的全球名校阶层是多么困难。”
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Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • The paper quoted a number of students from the incoming class, who had a range of responses, including two who said it was the right approach to withdraw the offers. "I do not know how those offensive images could be defended," one student said.
  • 京城家具产业转移面临选择难题
  • Institutions may also fail.
  • 国内房地产供过于求格局已经形成 人为刺激无效
  • 为何传统厨电巨头不做集成灶?
  • 6. Gene therapy comes good.
    同时,调查数据还显示,榜单上前100名的学校,毕业生平均月薪较去年上涨了1818元,涨幅达到22.8%。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 贵州省质监局开展溶剂型木器涂料认证监督抽检, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

财政部:前11月土地出让收入53362亿元 同比增长28.9%

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

北京租客诉自如甲醛超标 反遭自如公司起诉“违约”

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 低效的邮件沟通包括很多内容,从不及时回复邮件,到表达不清等问题都包括其中。如果你没有及时回复邮件的好习惯,你可能会错过重要的会议或者是截止日期,造成推迟以及迷惑,被认为是不专业的。
    你有翻白眼的习惯吗?握手时有气无力?不爱进行眼神交流?这些可谓是职业杀手。人们必须意识到行动大于言语,大部分的沟通是通过非语言暗示完成的。你的一些非语言习惯可能会被认为是不礼貌的,不专业的—而这些最终会严重影响你的职业发展。
  • 内森说:“如今,你必须根据行情购买。不过,如果你很大胆,不跟随潮流,那么你也有很多机会。”
    伦敦博蒙特·内森顾问公司(Beaumont Nathan)的联合创始人雨果·内森(Hugo Nathan)说:“新投资者对早期绘画大师的作品有兴趣,不过他们想要的是杜维恩(Duveen)卖给强盗大亨们的作品。他们想要名作。”他指的是英国艺术交易商约瑟夫·杜维恩(Joseph Duveen),他把很多伟大的艺术品带去了美国。
    1. Smart mattress
    还记得《类人猿行动》吗.这是一部被众人忽略的2016年早些时候的电影,由杰米.多南和斯里安.墨菲担任主演,讲述了对希特勒身边的三把手、党卫队将军莱因哈德.海德里希进行的一次失败暗杀。《行动代号:猿人》也尝试讲述这一故事,杰克.莱诺和奥康奈尔将在片中饰演密谋的士兵,而罗莎曼德.派克和米娅.华希科沃斯卡是他们片中的感情对象,杰森.克拉科则饰演他们的刺杀目标。
    胡润估计,中国内地目前有594位身家十亿美元以上的富豪,在香港、台湾和澳门还有94位,而美国仅有535位。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 家居卖场纷纷“触电” 线下掌控品牌商有难度
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 广东惠州大亚湾或核查3套以上的住房资金来源

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

The curbs are having an effect. Overall non-financial outbound investment fell 36 per cent in January from a year earlier to Rmb53bn ($7.8bn), the commerce ministry said on Thursday, following a 39 per cent drop in December.
4.室外类比赛项目
中国上海市场研究公司艾瑞咨询集团(iResearch)此前的一份报告说,中国网络游戏市场2008年收入为人民币208亿元,约占全球市场的27%,这一比例高于韩国的21%,略低于美国的29%。该公司还预计,中国可能会在2009年底前超越美国,成为全球最大的网络游戏市场。
Martha Cherry took a cigarette out of her mouth, murmured, "I've been there," and resumed smoking. Marc was in shock (which, let's face it, is a pretty healthy response when you realize your own mother may or may not have had thoughts of murdering you while you bathed). He realized for the first time how desperate and lonely it could be to be a housewife. He realized then and there that he was upon a very good idea for a TV show. This conversation was the birth of Desperate Housewives.
Mayweather vs McGregor Fight
Why? Just add in the intensifying anger after the Supreme Court's decisions over same-sex marriage issues and gays, add in the growing anger over abortions, Obamacare, gun control, food stamps, the new voter suppression pushed by GOP governors, plus more threats by conservatives and the tea party to dig in their heels and fight to overturn everything and increase austerity too.
But with Jrue Holiday back and Anthony Davis putting up historic numbers, they aren't going to be bad enough to get a Fultz or Jackson. Why couldn't last year's draft class be this good?

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 我的饮食健康吗?我们所吃的食物种类很大程度上会影响我们在身体和情绪上的感觉。食用过多垃圾食品会导致偏执,使人精力降低。反之,饮食健康则会使人有更好的情绪和更高涨的劲头。
  • 业主欠2.3万物业费 遭物业索赔28万"天价"违约金
  • Liu Fei was also a half-brother of the Emperor Wu of Han who ruled from 141BC to 97BC.
    vt. 打斗
  • 国家统计局:一线城市11月新建商品住宅销售价格环比微涨
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 《纽约时报》记者詹姆斯?格尔曼追踪报道了一群科学家,他们试图找到将狼与狗区分开来的基因。为了进行科学研究,饲养小狼崽的人必须每周7天、每天24小时和它们在一起,使它们能够适应社会化,以便进行科学研究。尽管这些幼崽看起来很可爱,它们最终还是会成长为掠食性的狼,而不是人类的忠实伙伴。研究人员希望他们的工作将有助于揭示,究竟是什么因素在历史上让一部分狼演化成人类熟悉的狗。
    5.Emma Watson
  • The top 10 Weibo celebrities now have a combined 40 million followers. One of the most famous online figures, Papi Jiang, already signed a contract for video ads worth a staggering 22 million.
    科学院说:“今年的诺奖关注的是经济学的一个中心问题:如何尽可能适当地匹配不同市场主体。”
  • *最佳真人秀主持:鲁保罗?查尔斯(RuPaul Charles),《鲁保罗变装皇后秀》(RuPaul’s Drag Race, Logo)
    But what about the tens of thousands of Irish fans? They're out of control.
  • 自信和迷茫只有一线之隔,而现在的科比·布莱恩特正横跨在这两端。这是在周二与勇士的比赛中我们唯一可以得出的结论。这位湖人队的超级明星打出了自己职业生涯当中,单场至少五次投篮的比赛中最糟糕的一场。
    “有个家伙请了一支军乐队来陪他宣布离职。”
    So with such a strong South American contingent, where will the main challenge come from ? Well, the big guns from Europe is the obvious answer. And where else could you look for a team of Champions than Spain. Having won the last World Cup, sandwiched between two European Championship triumphs, this is a team that not only knows how to play fantastic football, but that knows how to win. So whilst Messi and Ronaldo get all the annual plaudits and player of the year titles, the likes of Xavi and Iniesta go about winning all the major trophies. So will they be as string this year ? Well, worryingly for the rest of the world, yes. Not only are most of the old guard still there but talented youngsters such as Koke and Thiago Alcantara have joined the ranks. Not only that, but they've managed to grab a prolific striker, Diego Costa, from under the noses of the host nation, with the Atletico Madrid forward opting to play for Spain, rather than the nation of his birth.
  • 社交网络内容将出现在谷歌搜索结果页面
    The highest ranked of these is Fudan University School of Management in Shanghai at 40, down eight places on its previous rank in 2014.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 国家税务总局:全力以赴确保个税改革平稳落地让纳税人及时享受专扣政策红利 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

呼和浩特印发通知:部分本科及以上学历应往届生可半价买房

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

以“无界”思维,探索中国商业地产投资

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

中国剩女多的城市房价高:靠买房消除不婚恐慌

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

南京:GDP增速全省第一 新房价格没上涨

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • “四个全面”战略布局:全面建成小康社会是我们的战略目标,全面深化改革、全面依法治国、全面从严治党是三大战略举措
  • According to the country's film regulator, China's box office sales have boosted a whopping 48.7 percent in the last year alone.
  • 政府“暴力救市”LED照明行业IPO“捡漏”受益?

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • The Global Obesity Epidemic
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 要实现有效的电子邮件营销,可不只是偶尔发一封电子文宣邮件那么简单。要想构建一套有效的电子邮件营销战略,你需要一个功能齐全的工具。MailChimp似乎是市面上最佳的此类系统,它提供了各种典雅直观的电邮广告模板、先进的分段功能和营销自动化功能。
    以下是其中最值得期待的10部,我们相信这10部电影都将成为票房宠儿,值得反复欣赏。
    Wal-Mart U.S. president and CEO Bill Simon
  • The cost of living the Australian dream has surged with Sydney and Melbourne among the five most expensive cities in the world, outstripping most European and US locations, according to an annual survey released on Monday.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 1. 碧昂斯(Beyoncé),《碧昂斯》,Parkwood Entertainment/Columbia。这张专辑是继去年的平淡后的一次突击,是碧昂斯的力作,它光彩夺目地展示了充满情感的统治力、精良的制作、欲望的放纵与女性主义的力量(不一定是按这个顺序),在漫长而充满众多娱乐的一年里一直令人关注。她的歌唱与她的态度一样,极为自信而又充满细节;她所传达的信息复杂而又清晰。这是高端的流行乐,拒绝曲意逢迎。
  • 建设兵团水泥减少人员流失 聚人心稳定队伍
  • The soaring prices of 2008, when oil reached more than $140 a barrel, will repeat, though not likely in 2014, Mr. Hummel said. The price 'is going to go higher.'

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 探访长租公寓:到底啥模样 和上涨的房租有多大关联?
  • Household substance abuse
  • 成都4家房企及中介机构违规被查处
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

两部委力推绿色农房 带动绿色建材下乡

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 住在燕郊的北漂心声:北京不是家 燕郊也不是
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 构筑“一带一路”建设重要支撑区
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

['triti]

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

Others are Ouyeel, a unit of Shanghai Baosteel Group that provides financing for steel traders; and Small Entrepreneur, part of China Merchants Bank — the country’s sixth-largest lender — which focuses on wealth management.
A lot of the best James Bond theme songs sound like they belong in a lounge act. That's not a complaint, just an observation. For whatever reason, the English new wave act Duran Duran was given free reign to provide A View to a Kill with a new and exciting sound all its own. "A View to a Kill" was a hit song, and it probably would have been a success even without the James Bond connection. It's entertaining and cool and energetic, and it promises one hell of a good time. (Whether or not the movie actually lives up to that promise is a matter of some debate.)
Inside larger technology companies, female employees will be hoping for signs of change in pay and promotions — but will also be on guard, as a men’s rights backlash brews in some corners of Silicon Valley.
[k?'m?:l]
Among dozens of small, technology-focused acquisitions, the $3bn purchase of Beats Electronics, the celebrity-endorsed headphones and music streaming service, stands out as Apple’s largest ever deal. The acquisition still bemuses many Apple analysts, but in Jimmy Iovine and Dr Dre, Beats’ founders, Mr Cook has instantly regained credibility with the music industry after years of neglecting the iTunes download store. If Mr Cook is guilty of missing the rapid growth of subscription services such as Spotify, he has moved swiftly to compensate for it — though for a high price.
科学家周日表示,2013年,全球温室气体排放量增加了2.3%,达到历史新高。这个最新迹象表明,在控制全球变暖方面,国际社会的努力仍远远不够。
2. 宾夕法尼亚大学沃顿商学院
Most remittances ($117 billion) came from the United States, followed by Europe ($115 billion) and the Gulf states ($100 billion).
在日本博览会上,我们非常荣幸地采访到了虚渊玄,还有Nitro+社长Takaki Kosaka。让我们开始吧。
n. 路费,食物

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

取消限购首日 南京楼市并未出现明显升温迹象

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 2. The new one childplus policy will substantially raise the birth rate, contributing up to 2million new children to the 2014 economy, a 15 percent one-year lift that willonly further boost consumer morale and spirit.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • In the book, Galore moves in with Bond in London and together they spend their mornings squabbling.
  • 加拿大初裁我国铜管双反:反倾销税最高达109.8%
  • 这是2015年1月11日发布在伊斯兰主义社交网站上的视频截图,显示了一个自称为AmedyCoulibaly的男人,声称就是他在2015年1月9日杀死了犹太超市的四个人质。
  • 社科院《房地产蓝皮书》解读楼市热点:2019年房价料涨7.6%
  • 玛莎·切利取出嘴里的香烟,喃喃低语:"我也曾经这么想过。"说完便又抽起了烟。马克震惊了(我们想象一下,当知道你的亲生母亲可能会在你沐浴时杀了你,这反应很正常)。马克第一次意识到家庭主妇会变得多么绝望和孤独。接着,他就想到这会是电视剧的一个好素材。这次谈话便开启了《绝望主妇》的制作。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 家居企业扎堆上市 IPO预披露红星美凯龙及多喜爱
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 两个抢手在讽刺杂志查理周刊屠杀了12个人,谢里夫库阿奇和他的兄弟塞得,他们可能就是出国“接受屠杀训练并散播恐怖”的人中的两个。
  • 第一种看法是,油价本质上具有周期性。下跌之后必然会回升。这道波谷越深,下一个山峰就越高。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

百安居让人不心安

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